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Speech & Language Disorders

What Are They?
Not everyone is able to communicate effectively. Some people are simply bad listeners! But some children (and adults if not remedied early) suffer from a range of speech and language disorders which make it difficult for them to speak, understand concepts and convey what they want to say.

There are many reasons why this takes place. And while some disorders are more amenable to rehabilitative therapy, others require intensive sessions and a strong support system.

Speech and language problems have many causes, which range from emotional problems that, for instance, make some children stammer and stutter; autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder that invariably affects the ability to communicate; physical / congenital deformities in the speech apparatus such as a cleft palate that make it literally difficult to articulate words but where language comprehension is intact; trauma or injury to the speech and language centres of the brain that control these functions.

Also, a child who is hearing impaired will not learn to speak simply because he / she cannot hear sounds. Other causes could be cognitive or other developmental delays, weak muscles in the oral apparatus or respiratory problems.

Children who have difficulty speaking or using language can be helped by Speech and Language Therapy, which consists of a range of therapeutic techniques. The results of therapy are best when the disorder is detected early.

Types Of Speech & Language Disorders
Speech disorders refer to difficulties with the production of sounds while language disorders deal with a difficulty understanding or stringing words together to communicate.
Following are some Speech Disorders:

  • Articulation Disorders. This includes individuals who have difficulty articulating words. They are unable to make a word sound like it should and people around them are unable to understand the sounds they produce.
  • Fluency Disorders. These include problems such as stuttering, where the flow of speech is interrupted by abnormal stoppages and repetitions stuttering and stammering.
  • Resonance or Voice Disorders. This group of disorders deals with problems in the pitch, volume or quality of the voice to the extent that they draw the listener’s attention to these facets of the voice and disturb communication.
  • Dysphagia or oral feeding disorders. These include difficulties with eating and swallowing
Following are some Language Disorders :
Receptive Disorders are a group of disorders where individuals experience difficulty understanding, comprehending or processing language.
Expressive Disorders include difficulty stringing words together, a limited vocabulary or an inability to use language in a socially appropriate way.
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